I am thinking about going into nursing. I want to know what type of nursing careers are out there and how many years of school is required?
There are many path to becoming a nurse. You can earn your associate degree (2 years) in nursing and get your RN license or you can get your bachelor in nursing degree (4 years) to get your RN license. For people who already have a bachelor's degree, they can do an accelerated BSN degree program (12-18 months) or enter into master's degree program directly (about 3 years).
With an RN license you can work as a staff nurse in all the branches in medicine.
With a master's degree you can work as a license nurse practitioner in a specific field like pediatric, oncology, primary care etc…. . These guys are just like medical doctors. They see patients. They diagnose their diseases and advice them on a treatments course. They can prescribe medication in some states. Depending on the state you live in, you may be able to practice nursing independently of a doctor, however some state require that a doctor supervises you.
Now you do have CNA ( about a month) or LPN (9-18 months). These are nurse as well. CNA are certified nursing assistant who take care of the elderly etc… LPN are license practical nurses their job is to mostly give medication.